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EXCOMM 2-1 - Members: Dror, Wil Ge, Paul

DAYS 1-3 Tuesday, October 16 to Thursday, October 18

John F. Kennedy, the President of the U.S., has been presented with photographic evidence of Soviet missile launchers located on the island of Cuba, 90 miles from The United States. The launchers can be fitted with nuclear warheads for offensive strikes on U.S. sites as far away as Montana. You are members of EXCOMM, the group that will advise JFK throughout the ordeal.
You discuss many possible responses to the Societ presence in Cuba - an air strike, an invasion of mainland Cuba, a naval blockade, a diplomatic protest, and other ideas. You all realize that the decision that you make will be extremely crucial for the peace safety of your country and the world in general. After discussing all of the possible options, what do you advise President Kennedy to do, and why?
OUR DECISION AND REASON
ACTUAL DECISION
Have a diplomat ask the Cubans why they
have missile launchers. At the same time,
prepare an air strike for potential future use.
They should do this because they actually
don't know the uses of those missile launchers,
and they shouldn't act hastily.
They put in a naval blockade, but called it
a quarantine. Ships coming into Cuba were
stopped and searched, and if they had weapons,
they would be turned around.

Want to see the actual photographs? / Want to see a map of the missile range?

DAY 4 Friday, October 19

The Washington Press Corps has caught on to the important meetings taking place at the White House and are pushing for more information. How do you suggest the President should respond to all of the inquiries about what's going on?
OUR DECISION AND REASON
ACTUAL DECISION
He should tell them that he cannot disclose the information
at this time but that he will tell them when it is prudent.
The administration sends Kennedy to Chicago on business,
but he comes back. They cover it up by saying that he is sick.


DAY 5-6 Saturday, October 20-Sunday, October 21

The US military has been placed on full alert, and American allies have been notified that there is some serious trouble brewing with the Soviets. Congress, which is on recess, has been alerted and party leaders are aware of the situation. Nearly 200,000 American troops are moved to Key West, Florida - the largest invasion force ever assembled on American soil.

DAY 7 Monday, October 22

The President has signed an executive order enforcing the blockade, but the the American public has still not been informed of the mounting situation with the Soviets and Cubans. Do you suggest that JFK address the public? If so, how much information should be released to the American people?

OUR DECISION AND REASON
ACTUAL DECISION
He should tell the public that the invasion force
is in order to contain communism in Cuba. He
should not, however, elaborate and tell them that
there are missiles in Cuba.
Kennedy announced the quarantine being put in effect.
He also says that the Soviets are in Cuba and have
missiles. He warns the Soviets, saying that any missile
fired from Cuba to anywhere in the Western Hemisphere
would be looked upon as an attack and would lead to a
full retaliatory response by the US.
Want to see a clip of the speech?

DAYS 8-9 Tuesday, October 23 - Wednesday, October 24

The US quarantine is put into effect, and Cuba bulks up its military along the coasts in preparation for a possible invasion. Cuba calls the U.S. a bully in the United Nations, and Moscow accuses the U.S. of piracy.
There is information that the Soviet ships in the Caribbean are being shadowed by Soviet submarines. A Soviet ship approaches the quarantine line and attempts to break through the quarantine. What course of action to you suggest in dealing with the ship?
OUR DECISION AND REASON
ACTUAL DECISION
They should sink it, claiming that it is
a danger to their national security.
They let the ship go through, but all other Soviet ships headed
for Cuba turn around and go back.
You also have evidence that the Soviets are installing actual weapons in the Cuban missile sites that will be able to fire on the U.S. in a matter of days. Your decision is now a matter of peace or war. What is your suggested course for the President - fire weapons on the existing missile sites, set an ultimatum for removal of the missiles, destroy Soviet ships in the Caribbean, send troops to Cuba, move nuclear subs toward the USSR, or attempt any further means of peaceful diplomacy?
OUR DECISION AND REASON
ACTUAL DECISION
We should send an ultimatum to Cuba.
Kennedy issued an ultimatum to Cuba, saying that they need to
remove their missiles or the US will attack.


DAYS 10-12 Thursday, October 25 - Saturday, October 27

Proceedings are becoming heated at the United Nations. The U.S. openly challenges USSR at the United Nations, without getting a desired response. Tensions remain high between the two countries. The United States military forces are set at DEFCON-2 - the highest in history. Want to see clips of the UN discussion?
Nikita Khrushchev, the Soviet premier, has made two offers to Presdient Kennedy. The first is to remove the missiles from Cuba in exchange for no American invasion of Cuba, and the second demands U.S. removal of missiles from Turkey in return for the removal of Soviet missiles from Cuba. In the meantime, an American U-2 spy plane has been shot down over Cuba. What do you suggest the President should do in this situation - accept either of the offers, make a counter offer, or demand immediate removal or else troops and weapons will be deployed?
OUR DECISION AND REASON
ACTUAL DECISION
President Kennedy should accept the first offer,
but say that they will keep missiles in Turkey
with the understanding that they will not be used.
Kennedy agrees to the first offer, but acts as if he didn't recieve the second one.



DAY 13 Sunday, October 28

What is the result of the Cuban Missile Crisis? What impact does the crisis have on the Cold War and the relationship between the US and the USSR?